When choosing studio microphone, aside from types of microphone which is discussed in previous topic, another important feature of microphone is polar pattern (directional feature). Microphone Polar Patterns let us know which area microphone is sensitive.
The 4 basic types of Microphone Polar Patterns:
You need to understand polar pattern because you use this feature to eliminate unwanted noise as well as function advanced audio recording techniques.
1. Omni /Omni directional:
With this mode, microphone catches audio 360 degree around. No matter the area is on the left, right, above, beneath, this microphone still can record the sound.
This mode is also called heart mode. In this mode, microphone records from the front audio source and a little bit of two sides. It’s not sensitive with the back.
For example, assuming you record in your small room, noise source is mainly from your computer, you just need to simply turn the back of microphone toward the computer and microphone won’t catch the noise from the computer.
3. Hyper Cardioid:
This mode is similar with Cardioid but it will catch a little bit sound from the back.
4. Figure 8/Bidirectional:
Which mean number 8 form mode. Microphone will catch the sound from the front as well as the back, it doesn’t catch the two sides of microphone.
The most important thing to remember is each microphone functions differently with different frequencies. For example, it runs with 1 kHz in the front but also runs with 100 kHz in every directions.
Therefore, microphone polar patterns are not absolute, you need to use your microphone many times in order to learn its features.